Copyediting Services Explained: This is What the Professionals Do

The strongest desire... example of copyeditingCopyediting services encompass many different types of editorial and proofreading services.  A simple search on the Internet will reveal a wide variety of editing and proofreading services, and it appears that there is no universally accepted definition of the editing processes available.  However, if you are considering hiring the services of a professional proofreader or editor, there are three general types of editing that you need to be aware of when determining which copyediting services will be the most suitable for your manuscript needs.  Here’s an overview of the types of editing you may come across.


Proofreading is the most basic form of copyediting service, and the majority of professional editors will offer this at a lower price than their other editing services.  A proofreader’s main role is to meticulously read through your document and ensure that it doesn’t contain any spelling, grammatical or consistency errors.  As a rule, proofreaders will not rearrange the sentence structure, or reorder any problematic paragraphs.  Proofreading is suitable for you if you are confident in your English language ability and feel that you do not require any assistance with the sentence structure or content of the manuscript or document.  Using a proofreader is extremely important because, despite your best efforts, it is very difficult to thoroughly check a document for errors yourself.  Expert proofreaders will go through each and every word and ensure that your text is perfect.

Line Editing

Line editing is one step up from proofreading.  When line editing, proofreaders will conduct a more detailed review of your document and will literally go through the manuscript line by line.  A good proofreader will read a manuscript several times when they are engaged in the line editing process, and they will meticulously check that the document is consistent, that there are no plot discrepancies and that it contains accurate spelling and grammar.  Line editors use a very specific markup process when line editing and many line editors will use a series of codes, or proofreading symbols, to denote the changes to the text that are required.

In addition to checking basic spelling and grammar, line editing also involves editing for style and consistency.  Some types of documents, such as legal manuscripts, dissertations, educational publications, etc. will need to follow certain writing conventions.  In these cases, editors will consult a style guide to ensure that the conventions are followed accurately and that citations, quotations, and footnotes are properly formatted.  Once line editors have reviewed a manuscript a couple of times, they will quite often revisit it to examine the formatting.  This part of the process will be especially important if different editors and proofreaders have been used during the process.  Some editors may also go one step further when providing copyediting services and will double-check that the facts presented in certain parts of the document are correct and up to date.

Substantive Editing

The final type of copyediting services editors offer is substantive editing, which is even more detailed than line editing.  Substantive editing is also known as developmental editing or comprehensive editing and—depending on the quality of the written material—can involve much more work on behalf of the editor.  Substantive editing will often involve the editor restructuring, rewriting or paraphrasing elements of the manuscript.  They will look at the document as a holistic piece and will ensure that it is coherent throughout and fits together as it should.  They will add information, where necessary, and will delete anything that they feel is unsuitable or detracts from the message of the document.  During the substantive editing process, the editor may work closely with the writer to discuss issues with the document and to negotiate a new structure or format.  In some extreme cases, they may rewrite the entire document.

Online Copyediting Services

Vappingo offers both editing and proofreading services. In the case of editing, we recognize that there is a considerable overlap between substantive editing and line editing and, for this reason, we operate a model that is a combination of both processes.  Our editors will generally start the editing process with a substantive pass through the entire manuscript.  They will check the overall structure of the document, correct any immediately obvious sentence issues and ensure that the manuscript flows logically.  They will then revisit the editing process and, on the second pass, will perform further copyediting while ensuring that references, citations, and quotations are correct.  Finally, they will proofread the document in order to identify any mistakes they have missed through pass one and two.

Here at Vappingo we do not use a special markup language on a customer’s manuscript or dissertation unless they specifically request it.  Instead, we mark the changes we have made by activating the Track Changes tool in Word.  We then send our customers two versions of their document: a version that includes all the changes and editor comments, and a version in the final form, with all such changes accepted.

How to Write a Thesis Statement That Your Professor Will Love

If you’re wondering how to write a thesis statement without getting into a complete muddle, check out our incredibly simple thesis statement template to craft an amazing thesis statement. Simply fill in the blanks and you’re done.

Fill in the blank thesis statement formula

When it comes to perfecting the dark art of thesis statements, there’s good news and bad news:

The bad news: Your thesis statement may well be the single, most important sentence in your essay, so you can’t mess it up.

The good news: It’s actually really, really easy to write a great thesis statement without wasting too many brain cells.

Luckily, despite what you may have been told, writing a thesis statement is actually incredibly easy. And we’re about to share a simple trick that will help you nail your statement every single time.

But before we get to the only thesis statement you’ll ever need, let’s take a look at the basics.

What is a Thesis Statement?

  • A single sentence that is located at the end of your introduction.
  • Tells the reader what your opinion is and what paper is going to prove.
  • Directs your reader to the main pieces of evidence you will explore.

If you want to learn more, check out Purdue’s guide to thesis statements. If you’re ready to get started on crafting the perfect statement, read on.

Thesis Statements That Suck

Announcing something

I’m going to describe Shakespeare’s love life.

This essay will examine the life of a politician.

What’s so wrong?

These statements provide the reader with an idea about what the essay, dissertation or thesis will discuss, but don’t actually put anything on the line. There’s nothing at stake, no specific issue to be resolved and absolutely nothing to make the reader want to learn more. Many of the essays we come across as part of our student proofreading services contain this basic mistake.

Stating the obvious

Shakespeare wrote a lot about love.

Politicians work long hours.

What’s so wrong?

If very few people are actually likely to disagree with the issues you discuss in your essay, what’s the point in wasting your time analyzing them? Your thesis statement needs to make a claim that someone may disagree with. You will then spend your essay arguing why your claim is true. Check out our guide to writing argumentative essays for more deets.

Asking a question

Did Shakespeare ever get married?

Why are politicians paid so much?

What’s so wrong?

To write a good thesis, you need to ensure your thesis statement clearly states your position and the purpose of the essay as opposed to simply posing a question. The questions above are weak and do not give your reader any idea about what you’re intending to prove in your paper.

So, now we know what a poor statement looks like, how do you write a fabulous one?

The Only Thesis Statement Template You Will Ever Need

Simply fill in the blanks of this thesis statement template in relation to the topic of your essay and what you intend to prove and you’re done.

By examining <claim one>, <claim two> and <claim three> it is clear that <opinion>.

See it in action:

By examining politicians’ long working hours, depth of responsibility, and the important role they play in the social and economic wellbeing of the country, it is clear that they are not overpaid.

We’re done.


Yep. It really is that easy.

And to make your life even easier, we’ve crammed all this great info into a free printable PDF. Print the poster out and refer to it when you’re in the process of crafting your next thesis statement.

How to Write a Thesis Statement

Thesis statement formula poster: how to write a thesis statement

You can place our thesis statement template on your webpage free of charge. Simply copy and paste the code below.

Get instant access to professional essay editors who can transform your grades. Students throughout the world use Vappingo to transform their academic documents and make themselves understood.

Thesis Statement Checklist

Still not sure if your thesis statement is fantastic enough? Use our thesis statement checklist to make sure you have written a good thesis:

A simple to follow thesis statement checklist with five handy prompts